Once a fuel cell has been designed, it is typical to characterize its performance by DC polarization experiments using a low current galvanodynamic scan as the signal, measuring the voltage response, and by high current pulse experiments, again measuring the voltage response.  In addition to DC techniques, fuel cells and fuel cell stacks are often characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.  These results can provide information about diffusion and the total cell impedance at different DC currents.

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